debian6系统安装教程(linux系统安装教程)

debian6系统安装教程(linux系统安装教程)

在这个教程里面,我们会向你展示如何查看可用的安全更新,以及如何在 Ubuntu、LinuxMint 等等这些基于 Debian 的系统中安装它们。

— Magesh Maruthamuthu(作者)

在 Linux 上通过命令行安装一个包程序是一件简单的事。在一行命令中组合使用多个命令能让你更加简单地完成任务。

安全更新也同样如此。

在这个教程里面,我们会向你展示如何查看可用的安全更新,以及如何在 Ubuntu、LinuxMint 等等这些基于 Debian 的系统中安装它们。

有三种方法可以完成这件事,下面会详细地描述这三种方法。

作为一个 Linux 管理员,你应该让你的系统保持为最新,这会让你的系统更安全,保护你的系统抵抗意想不到的攻击。

如果你因为一些应用的依赖问题不能解决,导致不能给所有的系统进行全部更新。那至少,你应该打上安全补丁来让你的系统 100% 符合要求。

方法一:如何检查 Debian/Ubuntu 中是否有任何可用的安全更新?

在进行补丁安装之前,检查可用安全更新列表始终是一个好习惯。它会为你提供将在你的系统中进行更新的软件包的列表。

默认情况下,你的系统上应该是已经安装了 unattended-upgrades 包的。但是如果你的系统没有装这个包,那么请使用下面的命令来安装它。

使用 APT-GET 命令 或者 APT 命令 来安装 unattended-upgrades 包。

$ sudo apt-get install unattended-upgrades或$ sudo apt install unattended-upgrades

什么是试运行? 大多数的 Linux 命令都有一个试运行选项,它会给出实际的输出但不会下载或安装任何东西。

为此,你需要在 unattended-upgrades 命令中添加 –dry-run 选项。

$ sudo unattended-upgrade –dry-run -dInitial blacklisted packages:Initial whitelisted packages:Starting unattended upgrades scriptAllowed origins are: o=Ubuntu,a=bionic, o=Ubuntu,a=bionic-security, o=UbuntuESM,a=bionicUsing (^linux-image-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-headers-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-image-extra-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-modules-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-modules-extra-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-signed-image-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^kfreebsd-image-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^kfreebsd-headers-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^gnumach-image-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^.*-modules-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^.*-kernel-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-backports-modules-.*-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-modules-.*-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-tools-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*|^linux-cloud-tools-[0-9]+\.[0-9\.]+-.*) regexp to find kernel packagesUsing (^linux-image-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-headers-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-image-extra-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-modules-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-modules-extra-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-signed-image-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^kfreebsd-image-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^kfreebsd-headers-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^gnumach-image-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^.*-modules-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^.*-kernel-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-backports-modules-.*-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-modules-.*-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-tools-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$|^linux-cloud-tools-4\.15\.0\-51\-generic$) regexp to find running kernel packagesChecking: apt ([])adjusting candidate version: apt=1.6.6ubuntu0.1Checking: apt-utils ([])adjusting candidate version: apt-utils=1.6.6ubuntu0.1Checking: bash ([])..Checking: xxd ([, ])pkgs that look like they should be upgraded: binutilsbinutils-commonbinutils-x86-64-linux-gnucppcpp-7dbusdbus-user-sessiondbus-x11firefoxfirefox-locale-eng++g++-7gccgcc-7gcc-7-basegcc-8-baselibasan4libatomic1libbinutilslibcc1-0libcilkrts5libdbus-1-3libdbus-1-devlibgcc-7-devlibgcc1libgfortran4libgomp1libitm1liblsan0libmpx2libquadmath0libstdc++-7-devlibstdc++6libtsan0libubsan0vim-commonvim-tinyxxd

如果在终端里,上面的命令输出说 “No packages found that can be upgraded unattended and no pending auto-removals”,这意味着你的系统已经是最新的了。

如何在 Debian/Ubuntu 中安装可用的安全更新?

如果你在上面的命令输出中获得了任意的软件包更新,就运行下面的命令来安装它们。

$ sudo unattended-upgrade -d

除此之外,你也可以使用 apt-get 命令来进行安装。但是这个方法有点棘手,我会建议用户用第一个选项。

方法二:如何使用 apt-get 命令在 Debian/Ubuntu 中检查是否有可用的安全更新?

在你的 Debian/Ubuntu 系统中运行下面的命令来查看可用安全更新的列表。

$ sudo apt-get -s dist-upgrade | grep \”^Inst\” | grep -i securiInst libquadmath0 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst libitm1 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst gcc-8-base [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libmpx2:amd64 libgcc1:amd64 libtsan0:amd64 liblsan0:amd64 libgomp1:amd64 libatomic1:amd64 libcc1-0:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst libgcc1 [1:8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (1:8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libmpx2:amd64 libtsan0:amd64 liblsan0:amd64 libgomp1:amd64 libatomic1:amd64 libcc1-0:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst libmpx2 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libtsan0:amd64 liblsan0:amd64 libgomp1:amd64 libatomic1:amd64 libcc1-0:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst liblsan0 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libtsan0:amd64 libgomp1:amd64 libatomic1:amd64 libcc1-0:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst libtsan0 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libgomp1:amd64 libatomic1:amd64 libcc1-0:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst libcc1-0 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libgomp1:amd64 libatomic1:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst libatomic1 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libgomp1:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst libgomp1 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libstdc++6:amd64 ]Inst libstdc++6 [8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04] (8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst libdbus-1-dev [1.12.2-1ubuntu1] (1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst dbus-user-session [1.12.2-1ubuntu1] (1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst dbus-x11 [1.12.2-1ubuntu1] (1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst dbus [1.12.2-1ubuntu1] (1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst libdbus-1-3 [1.12.2-1ubuntu1] (1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst xxd [2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1] (2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst vim-tiny [2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1] (2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst vim-common [2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1] (2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [all])Inst binutils-x86-64-linux-gnu [2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04] (2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [binutils:amd64 ]Inst binutils-common [2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04] (2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [binutils:amd64 libbinutils:amd64 ]Inst binutils [2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04] (2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) [libbinutils:amd64 ]Inst libbinutils [2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04] (2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst libasan4 [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst libubsan0 [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst libcilkrts5 [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst g++-7 [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst gcc-7 [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst libstdc++-7-dev [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst libgcc-7-dev [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst libgfortran4 [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst cpp-7 [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64]) []Inst gcc-7-base [7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04] (7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst cpp [4:7.3.0-3ubuntu2.1] (4:7.4.0-1ubuntu2.3 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst firefox [67.0.1+build1-0ubuntu0.18.04.1] (67.0.2+build2-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst firefox-locale-en [67.0.1+build1-0ubuntu0.18.04.1] (67.0.2+build2-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst gcc [4:7.3.0-3ubuntu2.1] (4:7.4.0-1ubuntu2.3 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])Inst g++ [4:7.3.0-3ubuntu2.1] (4:7.4.0-1ubuntu2.3 Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-updates, Ubuntu:18.04/bionic-security [amd64])

如何使用 apt-get 命令在 Debian/Ubuntu 系统中安装可用的安全更新?

如果你在上面命令的输出中发现任何的软件包更新。就运行下面的命令来安装它们。

$ sudo apt-get -s dist-upgrade | grep \”^Inst\” | grep -i securi | awk -F \” \” {‘print $2’} | xargs apt-get install

除此之外,也可以使用 apt 命令来完成。但是这个方法有点棘手,我会建议用户用第一个方式。

方法三:如何使用 apt 命令在 Debian/Ubuntu 系统中检查是否有可用的安全更新?

在 Debian/Ubuntu 系统中运行下面的命令来查看可用安全更新的列表。

$ sudo apt list –upgradable | grep -e \”-security\”binutils/bionic-updates,bionic-security 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 amd64 [upgradable from: 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04]binutils-common/bionic-updates,bionic-security 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 amd64 [upgradable from: 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04]binutils-x86-64-linux-gnu/bionic-updates,bionic-security 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 amd64 [upgradable from: 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04]cpp/bionic-updates,bionic-security 4:7.4.0-1ubuntu2.3 amd64 [upgradable from: 4:7.3.0-3ubuntu2.1]cpp-7/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]dbus/bionic-updates,bionic-security 1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 1.12.2-1ubuntu1]dbus-user-session/bionic-updates,bionic-security 1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 1.12.2-1ubuntu1]dbus-x11/bionic-updates,bionic-security 1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 1.12.2-1ubuntu1]firefox/bionic-updates,bionic-security 67.0.2+build2-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 67.0.1+build1-0ubuntu0.18.04.1]firefox-locale-en/bionic-updates,bionic-security 67.0.2+build2-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 67.0.1+build1-0ubuntu0.18.04.1]g++/bionic-updates,bionic-security 4:7.4.0-1ubuntu2.3 amd64 [upgradable from: 4:7.3.0-3ubuntu2.1]g++-7/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]gcc/bionic-updates,bionic-security 4:7.4.0-1ubuntu2.3 amd64 [upgradable from: 4:7.3.0-3ubuntu2.1]gcc-7/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]gcc-7-base/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]gcc-8-base/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libasan4/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]libatomic1/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libbinutils/bionic-updates,bionic-security 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04.2 amd64 [upgradable from: 2.30-21ubuntu1~18.04]libcc1-0/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libcilkrts5/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]libdbus-1-3/bionic-updates,bionic-security 1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 1.12.2-1ubuntu1]libdbus-1-dev/bionic-updates,bionic-security 1.12.2-1ubuntu1.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 1.12.2-1ubuntu1]libgcc-7-dev/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]libgcc1/bionic-updates,bionic-security 1:8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 1:8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libgfortran4/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]libgomp1/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libitm1/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]liblsan0/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libmpx2/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libquadmath0/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libstdc++-7-dev/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]libstdc++6/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libtsan0/bionic-updates,bionic-security 8.3.0-6ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 8.2.0-1ubuntu2~18.04]libubsan0/bionic-updates,bionic-security 7.4.0-1ubuntu1~18.04.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 7.3.0-27ubuntu1~18.04]vim-common/bionic-updates,bionic-updates,bionic-security,bionic-security 2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1.1 all [upgradable from: 2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1]vim-tiny/bionic-updates,bionic-security 2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1]xxd/bionic-updates,bionic-security 2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1.1 amd64 [upgradable from: 2:8.0.1453-1ubuntu1]

如何在 Debian/Ubuntu 系统中使用 apt 命令来安装可用的安全更新?

如果你在上面命令的输出中发现任何的软件包更新。就运行下面的命令来安装它们。

$ sudo apt list –upgradable | grep -e \”-security\” | awk -F \”/\” ‘{print $1}’ | xargs apt install

同样,下面的文件也会告诉你更新包的总数。

$ sudo cat /var/lib/update-notifier/updates-available190 packages can be updated.39 updates are security updates.

via: https://www.2daygeek.com/manually-install-security-updates-ubuntu-debian/

作者: Magesh Maruthamuthu 选题: lujun9972 译者: hopefully2333 校对: wxy

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